R178. Use digital signatures


The system must use digital signatures to ensure the authenticity of sensitive information.


A digital signature is a cryptographic mechanism that helps identify the sender of a message, and guarantee its authenticity and integrity. It should be used when dealing with very sensitive information or with data and resources that are susceptible to being affected by third parties.


  1. CAPEC-21: Exploitation of Trusted Identifiers. An adversary guesses, obtains, or "rides" a trusted identifier (e.g., session ID, resource ID, cookie, etc.) to perform authorized actions under the guise of an authenticated user or service. Attacks on trusted identifiers take advantage of the fact that some software accepts user input without verifying its authenticity.

  2. CAPEC-22: Exploiting Trust in Client. An attack of this type exploits vulnerabilities in client/server communication channel authentication and data integrity. It leverages the implicit trust a server places in the client, or more importantly, that which the server believes is the client.

  3. CAPEC-148: Content Spoofing. An adversary modifies content to make it contain something other than what the original content producer intended while keeping the apparent source of the content unchanged.

  4. CWE-326: Inadequate Encryption Strength The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.

  5. CWE-345: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.

  6. CWE-347: Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.

  7. CWE-494: Download of Code Without Integrity Check The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.

  8. ISO 27001:2013. Annex A - 14.1.3 Protect information included in application services transactions to avoid partial transmission, improper routing, unauthorized message modifications, unauthorized disclosure and unauthorized message duplication or replay.

  9. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.8) Verify that the firmware apps validate the digital signature of server connections.

  10. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.15) Verify that the firmware apps pin the digital signature to a trusted server(s).

  11. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.16) Verify the presence of tamper resistance and/or tamper detection features.

  12. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.19) Verify the device validates the boot image signature before loading.

  13. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.21) Verify the device uses code signing and validates firmware upgrade files before installing.

  14. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 Appendix C: Internet of Things Verification Requirements.(C.30) Verify the device uses code signing and validates code before execution.

  15. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V1.14 Configuration Architectural Requirements.(1.14.2) Verify that deploying binaries to untrusted devices makes use of binary signatures, trusted connections, and verified endpoints.

  16. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V3.5 Token-based Session Management.(3.5.3) Verify that stateless session tokens use digital signatures, encryption, and other countermeasures to protect against tampering, enveloping, replay, null cipher, and key substitution attacks.

  17. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V6.2 Algorithms.(6.2.7) Verify that encrypted data is authenticated via signatures, authenticated cipher modes, or HMAC to ensure that ciphertext is not altered by an unauthorized party.

  18. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V10.3 Deployed Application Integrity Controls.(10.3.1) Verify that if the application has a client or server auto-update feature, updates should be obtained over secure channels and digitally signed. The update code must validate the digital signature of the update before installing or executing the update.

  19. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V10.3 Deployed Application Integrity Controls.(10.3.2) Verify that the application employs integrity protections, such as code signing or sub-resource integrity. The application must not load or execute code from untrusted sources, such as loading includes, modules, plugins, code, or libraries from untrusted sources or the Internet.

  20. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V13.2 RESTful Web Service Verification Requirements.(13.2.5) Verify that the message headers and payload are trustworthy and not modified in transit. Requiring strong encryption for transport (TLS only) may be sufficient in many cases as it provides both confidentiality and integrity protection. Per-message digital signatures can provide additional assurance on top of the transport protections for high-security applications but bring with them additional complexity and risks to weigh against the benefits.

  21. OWASP-ASVS v4.0.1 V13.3 SOAP Web Service Verification Requirements.(13.3.2) Verify that the message payload is signed using WS-Security to ensure reliable transport between client and service.

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