System responses to authentication failures must not indicate which part of the authentication was incorrect.
Authentication forms are one of the most publicly accessible parts of an application, which makes them more susceptible to be attacked. Most authentication mechanisms require only a username and a password. If the responses to authentication attempts indicate which authentication parameter was incorrect, attackers may be able to obtain a list of valid usernames (user enumeration) that they can use in brute force attacks.
CWE-203: Observable Differences in Behavior to Error Inputs. Differences in device behavior to an error input may be used by an attacker to gather security-relevant information about the device. The information may be as simple as whether a particular operation was successful.
CWE-204: Observable Response Discrepancy. The product provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that reveals internal state information to an unauthorized actor outside of the intended control sphere.
OWASP Top 10 A2:2017-Broken Authentication. Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users' identities temporarily or permanently.
PCI DSS v3.2.1 - Requirement 6.5.10 Address common coding vulnerabilities in software-development processes such as broken authentication and session management.