How We Boost AWS DevSecOpsContinuous manual security tests for AWS CAF compliance
Amazon Web Services (AWS) makes it easier and cheaper to develop scalable apps. With a list of hundreds of services that is continually growing, this leading cloud platform offers a highly granular approach to infrastructure as a service. Furthermore, its highly redundant infrastructure extended around the world guarantees availability and reliability. Accordingly, it pays attention to security of and in the cloud. It is with respect to the latter that AWS enables users to enhance their DevSecOps capabilities.
But DevSecOps has been misinterpreted by many
as merely using automated tools to test security.
As AWS itself advises
in its Cloud Adoption Framework
manual techniques such as pentesting
and red teaming
should be leveraged as well
to identify security issues.
This is critical,
since our ethical hackers often find AWS credentials
and misconfigurations in AWS services.
In this blog post,
we talk about how
Fluid Attacks boosts your AWS DevSecOps implementation
by deploying manual techniques in combination with automated testing.
Security in and of the pipeline
Let us first remind you of the cloud security shared responsibility model (SRM) adopted by AWS and several others in the big league. Why, though? Because lack of knowledge or negligence are leading to vulnerabilities of the kind that are exploited on a daily basis. So, we all need to be aware of what AWS is going to deal with regarding security, and what lies in our hands.
When AWS talks about security of the cloud, it means the things for which AWS is accountable. This includes maintaining their availability zones and building security features into their products (e.g., making sure the users have the options to restrict access to pipeline resources through IAM roles and S3 bucket policies, encrypt data at rest and in transit and store data and secrets safely).
Security in the cloud, however, is our responsibility. We users are accountable for the security of what we deploy in the cloud and our configuration of AWS services. The sooner we find and fix issues in those respects, the better. It is in this matter that the adoption of cloud DevSecOps is crucial.
DevSecOps on AWS with Fluid Attacks
DevSecOps is a culture that stems from integrating security seamlessly into the entire development and operations workflows. This means, and this is critical: Security is worked into the early stages of the software development lifecycle (even from the planning stage). (See here how you can implement DevSecOps.) When this is attempted in the cloud, additional security requirements arise, such as the proper configuration of cloud services and continuous security testing of infrastructure as code (IaC) files and container images.
AWS has provided steps to support DevSecOps with AWS services and automated security testing tools. Also, it has published its CAF, which contains a security perspective. In it, AWS briefly states prescriptive best practices that improve the security status of cloud application projects.
From the outset, you should verify that you have given some thought and started best practices of a directive nature in the AWS CAF, which are those that aim at enhancing security governance and security assurance capabilities.
Mainly, concerning the former, you should have identified the specific risks to your assets and the shared responsibility for security by everyone in your organization. From this knowledge, you can develop, maintain and communicate policies, responsibilities, accountabilities, etc.
As for security assurance, you would need to review the precautions you take with respect to privacy and security configurations through controls (e.g., making sure that account credentials are rotated, deleting inactive IAM users and unused roles, etc.).
The CAF also contemplates best practices of a responsive nature, which would enhance your incident response capability. In short, they state that the AWS environment should be recognized in your incident response plans and such plans need to be simulated.
But the capabilities in the CAF that are closer
to what we aim at strengthening at
are those of preventive and detective nature.
Here they are,
along with a summed-up version of the best practices in each:
Identity and access management: Having controls that verify the identity of people and machines and validating that account permissions do not violate the principle of least privilege.
Infrastructure protection: Guarding against unauthorized access to systems and services within your workload (i.e., processes and resources that support your application and the interaction users have with it).
Data protection: Following security requirements regarding data storage and encryption.
Application security: Finding and remediating vulnerabilities during the SDLC.
Threat detection: Deploying monitoring to identify security misconfigurations, vulnerabilities and unexpected behavior.
Vulnerability management: Identifying, characterizing, reporting on and mitigating security vulnerabilities.
With the purpose of supporting these capabilities, there are AWS DevSecOps tools (e.g., AWS code scanning and vulnerability management tools) that run automatically and continuously in the CI/CD pipeline. Tools that go seamlessly with the service AWS CodeBuild -which compiles code, runs tests and produces software packages- can perform static application security testing (SAST), software composition analysis (SCA) and dynamic application security testing (DAST) at stages of development earlier than the traditional testing phase. The first analyzes source code for known security vulnerabilities, the second finds vulnerable third-party software, and the third assesses the running app from the outside by sending attack vectors to its endpoints. (Read here how together they make up a comprehensive approach to security testing.)
You've probably heard that to achieve DevSecOps you have to automate processes and security controls. We're not here to contradict that. It's evidently important to have processes be consistent and iterative. What we endorse is that you avoid leaving it all to automation. Tools show false positive and false negative rates. Their results must therefore be reviewed manually, and ethical hackers should be added to the security testing strategy to complete the search for vulnerabilities and issues.
The combination of automation and manual work is absolutely necessary. Our 2022 State of Attacks shows that the totality of critical severity vulnerabilities in the systems of our clients were detected by our ethical hackers only. One such vulnerability was having AWS credentials stored in plain text within the source code. This issue ranked second among those that expose organizations the most to risks.
Fortunately, the AWS CAF backs us up. It encourages deploying manual methods that simulate "real-world" cyberattacks as a best practice related to the vulnerability management capability. Namely, pen testing and red teaming, two methodologies we excel at.
Penetration testing refers to simulations of genuine attacks, which often involves creating custom exploits to bypass defenses. But the role of ethical hackers (or pentesters) in this approach is not limited to functional testing, since they can also perform manual SAST and SCA. (Notice that we always refer in this blog post to "manual" penetration testing. Elsewhere, we explain why we think "manual" is the only kind of pentesting.)
The following are the main benefits of our Penetration Testing solution:
The hackers' expert knowledge allows for a much more detailed understanding of vulnerabilities.
The combination of automation and manual security testing allows us to guarantee the detection of critical severity vulnerabilities with very low rates of false positives and false negatives.
It can be done continuously as the cloud-native software evolves, in what is known as the penetration testing as a service (PTaaS) model, so you have up-to-date knowledge on your security status.
We break the build to ensure that no vulnerable build that violates your organization's policies goes into production.
Once you have remediated a vulnerability, you can ask our hackers to verify that it really was, as many times as it takes you to solve it, without extra charge.
Red teaming also refers to simulations of real-world attacks, but it's got some differences compared to pentesting. First is red teaming's holistic approach, as it sets out to test an organization's security at the technological and human level (e.g., ethical hackers may use social engineering techniques) to find out the effectiveness of its attack prevention, detection and response strategies. Which begs for an explanation that also refers to a second difference between red teaming and pentesting. Namely, in the former, most people on the incident response team and employees don't know that the attacks are performed with the consent of the organization's executive leadership. Finally, we would like to mention that red teaming may have specific objectives instead of being focused on finding all the vulnerabilities.
In addition to those of our Penetration Testing solution, the following are the main benefits of our Red Teaming solution:
Highly realistic attack simulations that follow the tactics, techniques and procedures of malicious threat actors.
Ethical hackers with advanced certifications (OSEE, CRTO, CRTE and CARTP) give you a broad view of your organization's security.
What's more, in line with AWS DevOps security best practices and one under the operations perspective of the CAF, we present all the findings aggregated in a single pane of glass: our Attack Resistance Management platform (ARM). There you get detailed, updated reports, find out the risk associated with each detected vulnerability, assign members of your team responsible for remediation, get in touch with our hackers, among many other things.
If you're still on the fence and want to try our automated security testing first, start your 21-day free trial. You can upgrade anytime to add manual security testing.
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